Istanbul, an ancient city with a strategic location on the Bosphorus peninsula, holds a prominent position bridging the Balkans and Anatolia, connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Throughout its remarkable history spanning over two millennia, Istanbul has served as the capital of both the Eastern Roman Empire and the illustrious Ottoman Empire. It has witnessed pivotal moments in political, religious, and artistic narratives.
Perched upon a peninsula, the city finds itself encompassed by natural elements. To the north lies the Golden Horn (Haliç), an embracing haven, while the eastern side is guarded by the majestic Bosphorus, and to the south, the Marmara Sea stretches out. The Historic Peninsula, where the ancient settlements of Byzantium and Constantinople thrived, was encircled by time-honored fortifications, initially erected by Theodosius during the early fifth century.